{ 12. } Ironwood Tree (She Oak)
This tree has long needle-like branches. It is native to the South Pacific and was introduced in 1882 on Kauai to serve as a windbreak from the salt sprays. In addition, these trees help prevent erosion—not so much by intercepting rainfall directly as by laying down a thick mat of litter that protects the soil surface. The forest leaf litter and understory plants actually do the job of breaking the force of the falling rain and protecting the soil.
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Photo: Jami Carter

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